Category Archives: Libraries and Literacy

Start by telling your story

Last Friday (August 26, 2018), the board of education in the district where I have the privilege to serve adopted and announced a campaign to lift every library under their leadership from the condition it is in to one that reflects an “exemplary” status. According to the Alabama Department of Education’s guidelines, this means a collection that includes 15 books per student enrolled in the school (volume) and an average copyright date of 11 years or less (age). At the outset of this work, none of our 18 libraries meet that standard. A decade of missing or woefully inadequate funding have left almost every school library in the state below that standard.

It would be difficult to exaggerate how proud I am to be part of this work. When I launched #Kili4Kids in the spring of this year, my hope was to begin raising awareness of the need to have this conversation. In our district, we are going beyond talk and taking action. The reason is simple: it is disingenuous to pretend like it is possible to build strong readers (and thus “improve” schools) if the students just don’t have access to a robust collection of high-interest books.

This decision was a long time in coming. Moving from the status quo to a position dramatically different from what has been is risky and difficult – even when it is something as obvious and logical as giving students what they need to be successful.  It was not enough to propose a change.  Simply pointing out the problem would have been insufficient.

More than two years ago, the librarians in our district decided to start telling our story.  We have been sharing in every way we could think of steadily and consistently since then.  We produced and shared graphs that compared the state of each library to the targets for which we should be aiming.  We tracked and shared circulation data.  We analyzed the impact of high frequencies of reading on other data points (reading achievement).  To their great credit, our superintendent and board members listened and have chosen to take action.  BUT, this started when agreed together to take the risk of stepping out and telling the truth.

As is the case in your district (probably), librarians had been generally forgotten in most of our schools.  They still did libraryish stuff but in most cases, the library and the librarian were not central to the school’s mission and strategy.  Our schools were trying to build stronger readers without consulting the folks who had the formal training and experience to support that very work.  Instead of turning bitter, our group of librarians decided to start advocating for ourselves.  We went Jerry McGuire, starting with the superintendent.  We invited him to a meeting in which the group basically said ‘let us help!’  Today, we are at a much different place in this regard than we were a couple of years ago.  But none of that change was magic – it was hard, strategic work.

As our district moves into this next stage, we want to invite as many schools as are willing to join us.  We recommend that you do that by getting involved with a campaign to shine a light on school libraries that we are calling #MyLibraryStory.  Here are just a few specific suggestions:

  • Use social media to make public the truth about your library.  What is the state of your collection?  How is the physical space?  What do you know about your library that your community (or maybe even your teachers/principal/superintendent) would be surprised to know?  Tag your tweets and posts with #MyLibraryStory
  • Find the data on your school’s library.  Our team has put together a toolkit with several different resources that can help with this. Visit bit.ly/MyLibraryStory (case sensitive; don’t add www. or .com) to check out these tools, all of which are completely free.  Run an analysis of your collection; create an infographic that shares your profile; share widely and often!  If you have resources to share, we would love to add them as well.
  • Start (or continue) sharing what your school’s library can and does do.  Perhaps your library has lots of challenges.  No matter how tough they are though, that space and that professional has something special to contribute to the school.  Share!

We know how scary it is to take a risk.  And if you aren’t in these shoes, let me assure you that speaking up like this is specifically a professional risk because it is a suggestion that things should be different than they are.  Unfortunately, too many of us have been beat down as disloyal, not-a-team-player, or a trouble-maker when we try to point out that there is a better way … for the benefit of our kids, not to make our lives easier.

Let me switch from ‘we’ to ‘I’.  I challenge my fellow administrators to be part of this telling.  YOU need to be personally involved in this advocacy.  This is not about advocating for libraries, it is about advocating for what works for kids.  If you think what we are doing (by starving libraries) is working, you are crazy.  Empower your librarian to speak out and stand beside her/him in calling for our communities and state to do better by kids.  You have a stronger voice and great opportunity to use it in your community than the librarian in your school does.  Don’t leave this work to him/her. To all the librarians out there – recruit your principal and superintendent but don’t wait for her/him to act.  Start sharing – in our case, the courage to speak up first was exactly what got the ball rolling.  There are lots more actions we can take between here and being where we need to be as a state.  But start with something simple: tell your story.  Join the movement by contributing to #MyLibraryStory.

We can do this if we just decide to try.

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Kili4Kids

I’ve written, spoken and worked a great deal in advocacy for public school libraries. While we have no shortage of hypocrisy in our society and in public education, one of the more egregious examples is the way in which school libraries are ignored, starved or outright closed. Once again I assert that we never will accomplish much in the way of producing proficient readers if we do not commit ourselves to rehabilitating our libraries and treating them like an indispensable part of our schools.

But these are all just words. How about some action?

This June, I will be climbing Mount Kilimanjaro with my dad and brother. It is the tallest mountain in Africa and the tallest free-standing mountain in the world. Although summiting does not require great technical climbing skills, walking to 19,341 feet above sea level is no joke.

Here’s the connection. The total amount needed to bring every library in my school district up to the national “exemplary” standard is about $1.9M. I’m paying all the expenses for my trek up Kilimanjaro but I wonder if you would consider “sponsoring” me. I want to raise $19,341 for the school libraries of Tuscaloosa City Schools. That’s 1% of what we need. It could be one small step for Literacy in my town and one giant trek up a mountain for me.

If you’d like to help, you can make a donation through this link.  Every dollar counts.

Here’s another thought: I’m willing to carry five items up the mountain with me: t-shirts or tiny banners to take a picture with at the top or small (painted?) rocks. The first five people to reach out to me (amaxey at tusc dot k12 dot al dot us) and contribute at least $1,000 can take me up on this offer. You’ll need to provide the object and I’ll need to check it out before I agree. Or let me know if you’ve got another idea.

I plan to have an amazing trek with my dad and brother. It would be incredible to do something to support school libraries while I’m at it. What do you say?  Join me in making this climb up Kili truly about kids?

Update: If you prefer to donate directly, you can write a check to “Tuscaloosa City Schools”. Write “#Kili4Kids” in the memo line. Mail or deliver it to my attention at: 1210 21st Avenue, Tuscaloosa Alabama 35401. We can handle cash or gold bullion donations as well.

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The Silver Bullet We Always Had

In the first two blog posts in this series, I made the case that literacy is much more than a science to be executed and that nothing short of an avalanche of books for students to select freely from is enough to develop strong readers.

In a profession that seems obsessed with finding the answer, it seems ironic that the mechanism for igniting and nurturing the art of literacy has been so often forgotten, downplayed or outright abandoned.  No teacher can possibly handle the crushing weight and range of instructional duties assigned and allocate enough time to curate, acquire and manage a collection of books diverse and extensive enough to serve the individual needs of the students he/she serves.  Fortunately, just such a professional educator is available to serve the needs of students – the school librarian.  Most school librarians are exceptionally well qualified to serve as a school’s lead in nurturing the art of literacy. Many hold a degree in library science that provides specific training in skills particularly relevant to developing readers, many of which go well beyond what teacher preparation programs provide.  They can be counted on to celebrate reading, to serve individual students’ developmental needs, to collaborate closely with classroom teachers and to provide both innovative and research-based recommendations for improving reading in their school.

But somehow, far too often, they are not the strongest voice in the conversation about how to build strong readers.  Many times, they are not included in the decision-making process of the school at all.  Some schools do not even have a librarian.  As the spaces in which they work have become known as “library-media centers”, they have been expected to be tech “gurus” – a role which most have embraced enthusiastically, even as it has forced them to spend less time on what should be their essential function.  In some cases, the library has become a space in which students are encouraged to learn and collaborate and innovate – with technology.  While technical and digital literacy are particularly essential to the success of everyone entering the workforce now and in the future, to allow this focus to come at the expense of reading is exceptionally dangerous.  Many librarians have also been tapped to support the task of reading instruction – often in the form of “small group instruction”.  Again, direct and even individualized instruction in reading is an important part of becoming a strong reading.  Structures that prioritize that objective at the expense of equally important work are evidence of the imbalance we have been discussing.

The evidence is clear that public education and decision-makers in the public arena are willing to allow libraries a long, slow death by ignoring them.  While there are doubtlessly examples of this around the country, I will limit my examples to those in the environment where I work.  In my state, librarians are funded at the state level like teachers – with a formula based on student enrollment.  If a school’s enrollment is too low, they do not earn a “full” librarian.  School districts in such situations must either assign librarians to serve multiple schools or find money to pay the missing portion of the salaries required to have a full-time librarian in each school.  Students most likely not to have a full-time librarian in their school are naturally those who are in school systems with the least available resources – children who are almost all part of poor families.  On the other end of the spectrum, very large schools do not receive funding for an additional librarian.  Even elementary schools with more than 1,500 students receive state funds for one librarian.

Funding for the library itself comes from the state as well.  Under the current formula funding structure (a per-teacher allocation), a school can purchase about 1.5 books for every teacher in the school per year if the entire amount is spent on books and not on the other supplies that are necessary to keep a library running.  This amount is certainly not enough to maintain that avalanche we talked about earlier.  But it is more than the $0 libraries were allocated for eight of the last ten years.

It seems impossible to excuse this abysmal lack of funding as a function of “budget pressures”. At the same time that we have spent literally nothing on libraries, we have poured hundreds of millions of dollars into other educational priorities.  Educators and leaders everywhere spoke up and spoke out on lots of issues – as well they should; the voices calling for attention to this most basic resource in schools – books – were few and completely ignored.

To avoid misunderstanding, massive credit goes to the hundreds of librarians who have been speaking out all along and who have found increasingly creative ways to keep their libraries healthy.  Hats off to the school principals and system leaders who have made reading their core mission and who have found and invested funds to make their libraries strong.  As a rule, their schools are strong as well – along with their students’ literacy skills.

For most of us though, we are here in this quandary that we may not have created but that we have definitely exacerbated by foolishly focusing on just half of the equation.  To be clear, it would have been equally foolish to abandon reading instruction and focus all our efforts on independent reading.  In today’s educational climate, that course of action seems inconceivable.  The way forward, however, should be simple.

Restore the balance.  Make both sides of literacy the focus.  Continue to apply excellent, evidence-based practice to reading instruction.  Take steps to build a culture of reading by making truly independent reading a part of the school’s DNA.  

Here are five suggestions for getting started:

  • Accept that literacy is not one dimensional.  Control the things that are meant to be controlled.  Stop trying to control (or quantify or “track” or just ignore) the things that aren’t.  Recognize that the lopsided approach we have been taking just. does. not. work! Let the joy and the passion and the magic of reading be your best friend. Crazy little secret – when kids love to read, they do. A lot.  When kids read a lot, they get better at reading.  When kids get better at reading, they can prove it on a test.     
  • Invite your school librarian to be the school’s “culture of reading” director.  Trust her/him to lead the process of figuring out what your school needs to do to become a community of passionate, strong readers. Folks trained in the science of literacy can help with this work too.  They should not be leading/doing this work instead of the librarian though.
  • Evaluate your school’s library collection.  Organizations such as the American Association of School Librarians offer resources and recommendations. The key questions are “Do we have enough books” and “Is our collection young enough”.  If you have thousands of books so old students will not read them, they aren’t helping. As we pointed out last time, this is especially important with non-fiction books.  Be ready to hear that your library needs help.  My children’s elementary school has valued and support their library for decades.  Seriously, someone raises money for it literally every day of the year … and that library’s (amazing) collection still does not meet the national standard of an “exemplary” collection.
  • Find money for your library.  It’s that simple.  Ask the generous members of your community.  Sell concessions at the ball game.  Write grants.  Make the case to your board.  We are doing all this and more.  By the way, it’s working for us.  But that’s a story for another day. Figure out how to make this a priority and make it happen. The good news is that “we need books” is one of the statements your community members are most likely to understand and accept.
  • Recommit your classroom, school, district to a focus on literacy that makes actual results the goal.  Keep in mind that test scores are symbols; our goal should be to improve the reality those symbols signify.  Young people who are actually strong readers will display behaviors and provide evidence of their excellence in ways that go far beyond what a test can measure.  That outcome is one to be excited about and work towards.

 

  • Bonus: Get the adults in your school/district involved in modeling a culture of reading.  Share with others what you are reading, host book talks, make specific recommendations to students, show what an adult who reads looks like.  Give students an example of someone who reads when s/he does not have to.  If you are not on fire for reading, why should they be?

In the first two posts in this series, I tried to make the case for change like this.  Next time, I will wrap up the series by pointing out a few more positive effects this change is likely to have.

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The Missing Avalanche

In the first post in this series, I set out to make the case that public education has fallen into the trap of believing that it is possible to develop great readers (from the struggling readers we often serve) by focusing on reading instruction.  Even when that focus actively crowds out the other half of literacy: independent reading.

While the drive to fix our problem (vis-a-vis low test scores) is understandable, the problem is that we know better.  We know how growing into a strong reader works.

We have known for a long time that

  • in order to become a proficient reader, you have to read a lot. Emerging readers need to read every day. It takes hundreds of books to become a great reader, not dozens.
  • since being different from each other is a key part of being human, readers are interested in different books (from each other). Readers only get better when they read books that aren’t too easy or too hard. As reading ability develops, a reader is able to read increasingly difficult books comfortably. In order to provide students enough options to interest and challenge them, we need a lot of books.  
  • the best way to get a human to read that many books is to let her/him choose her/his own books because humans (particularly emerging readers) will only read lots of books if they find them interesting.

The facts are simple.  We have to let students choose what they read and to do so they need both autonomy and options.

Unfortunately, in far too many cases, our zeal for ensuring student success has allowed us to violate these principles.  We try to quantify and control the art of reading. By degrees, we strip the independence from independent reading. We find ways to put a rank and value on each book. We dictate how much and how often students read. We make reading into a pursuit of points.  For many students, these practices conspire with the honest difficulty of school to make reading a chore to be first dreaded, then avoided, then abandoned at the first opportunity.  Incidentally, it is worth considering the possibility that our fervor to stamp out illiteracy among the young is contributing directly to the precipitous rise of aliteracy in adults.

The reduction of literacy to a science has had another direct impact on our practice in public education.  It has given rise to a climate in which books themselves have become dispensable to the process of developing strong readers.  In an astonishing leap of logic, we have been perfectly content to abandon one of the cardinal rules of this process: ensuring students have access to enough books.  We (most public schools) have stopped buying books at anything near an appropriate rate.  Kelly Gallagher, noted speaker, advocate for effective literacy practice and author of several books including Readicide (a book that examines how schools are systematically killing the love of reading), suggests that students need not hundreds of books to chose from but thousands. He says that only an avalanche of books will do.  But instead of fighting to ensure funding to sustain a school environment that has that many books available to students, we have decided to spend our precious resources elsewhere.  

The problem with diverting funding away from book purchases is that the age of a school’s collection of books matters.  Consider two more things we know:

  • It is important for emerging readers to read both fiction and nonfiction. The recent conventional wisdom is that well more than half of reading should be nonfiction.
  • Nonfiction ages faster than fiction. For example, Magic School Bus and Dr. Seuss books still appeal to young readers just fine. Books with topics like “When We Get to the Moon” and “Today’s Hottest NBA Stars: Magic Johnson and Larry Bird” were probably written later but no longer appeal to young readers.

The science of literacy has starved the art of literacy for resources. When students do not benefit from the emaciated book collections that exist as a result, that fact is taken as further proof that “recreational” reading is not essential to the process of developing as a reader but is a luxury in which those who are already proficient readers may indulge.

So the question is this: how is the balance in your school?

  • Do students get to pick their own books for independent reading?
  • If students are allowed to pick, do they have to follow certain rules (point/level restrictions)?
  • Is your reading system really about scoring points or about reading?
  • How many years in the last five has your school spent more money on books for independent reading than on either a reading program or a reading teacher?
  • What’s the average age of the books your students have access to?

Do your students have an avalanche of books available to them and it is used to nurture a passion for reading?  If we produce students who can read perfectly well but chose not to, we will have failed.  Sadly, the statistics on adult aliteracy suggest that we have already made this mistake.  Even more alarming is the fact that our strategy has done little to reduce the problem it was designed to solve.  We have sacrificed a deep passion for reading in favor of reading “achievement” and have not accomplished even that.

Let’s find the balance that has been missing by tapping into an amazing resource we have always had.

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